What is the function of heparan sulfate?

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are a class of carbohydrate-modified proteins involved in key biological processes, including growth factor signaling, cell adhesion, and enzymatic catalysis. HSPGs serve as coreceptors for a number of ligand molecules to regulate their signaling and distribution.

What is heparan sulfate receptor?

Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) is a receptor of diverse macromolecular cargo. • HSPG endocytosis is involved in infectious disease, lipid metabolism and cancer. • HSPG represents an interesting target for macromolecular drug delivery.

Are proteoglycans in the plasma membrane?

Proteoglycans are found in the extracellular matrix, plasma membrane of cells, and intracellular structures.

Which cells express heparan sulfate?

Similarly, in the thymus a particular subset of cortical epithelial cells known as thymic nurse cells are reported to express high levels of highly sulfated HS that is thought to aid thymocyte adhesion and facilitate T cell development (32–35).

Where is heparan sulfate made?

Heparin and heparan sulfate are complex, linear, acidic polysaccharides belonging to the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) family. In higher organisms, they can be found primarily on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix, attached to a protein core.

Is heparin the same as heparan sulfate?

Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous components of the cell surface and extracellular matrix of all multicellular animals, whereas heparin is present within mast cells and can be viewed as a more sulfated, tissue-specific, HS variant.

What is a proteoglycan complex in cell membrane?

Function. Proteoglycans are a major component of the animal extracellular matrix, the “filler” substance existing between cells in an organism. Here they form large complexes, both to other proteoglycans, to hyaluronan, and to fibrous matrix proteins, such as collagen.

What is heparan sulfate made of?

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of 50–200 glucosamine and uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) disaccharide repeats with epimerization and various sulfation modifications. HS is covalently attached to core proteins to form HS-proteoglycans.