What is tenocytes function?

The characteristic cells in tendons and ligaments are called tenocytes, which are responsible for the formation and turnover of the extracellular matrix. They react to external stimuli and facilitate the functional adaptation of the proteoglycan and collagen network to mechanical requirements.

What do tenocytes produce?

As MTJs mature, tenocytes secrete the bulk of the MTJ/tendon ECM, particularly the many proteins and proteoglycans that make up the core functional units, the collagen fibrils (Fig. 3B).

What type of tissue does tenocytes build into?

Tenocytes are mature tendon cells that are found throughout the tendon structure, typically anchored to collagen fibres.

What do tenocytes look like?

The cells are cobblestone-like in culture when grown to confluence. They also have large nuclei (inset). (B) Tenocytes in culture. These cells are fibroblast-like and assume a highly elongated shape in confluent conditions.

What are Chondrogenic cells?

Two types of cell are formed during chondrogenesis: chondroblasts, and chondrocytes (Fig. 1). Chondroblasts are progenitor cells that secrete the extracellular matrix (ECM), while chondrocytes are involved in nutrient diffusion and matrix repair. Both cell types are required to form cartilage.

What is Chondrogenic differentiation?

3.5. Analysis of Chondrogenic Differentiation. Under the described culture conditions, human MSCs undergo chondrogenic differentiation within 2–3 weeks, producing abundant extracellular matrix composed primarily of cartilage-specific molecules such as type II collagen and aggrecan.

Are chondrocytes fibroblasts?

Cartilage. Cartilage is a specialized form of connective tissue produced by differentiated fibroblast-like cells called chondrocytes.

What are tenocytes and tenoblasts?

Tenocytes are tendon cells that secrete and build up the ECM with its components. These cells are longish and slender in their morphology and similar to fibroblasts. They are “specialized” fibroblasts (see Fig. 1.6 for the morphology of tenocytes and tenoblasts).

Are tenocytes and ligament fibroblasts found in the ECM?

Although tenocytes and ligament fibroblasts are unremarkable cells in routine histological preparations and seemingly isolated within the ECM ( Figs 14.2 and 14.3 ), they have a much more elaborate form when viewed by confocal microscopy ( McNeilly et al., 1996 ).

What is the role of tenocytes in homeostasis?

Tenocytes are responsible to maintain tendon homeostasis [35] and, in response to mechanical loads, initiate controlled responses that particularly result in the production of biomolecules, mainly glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins that play specific yet interactive roles in tendon adaptation to the tensile forces applied.

How does mechanical loading affect the morphology of tenocytes?

The morphology of tenocytes is not only altered with aging, but also due to mechanical loading ( Abraham et al., 2011 ). Rat ATs subjected to mechanical loading demonstrated micro-regions of abnormal tenocyte morphology, with the cells having a high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and rounded morphology (similar to aged tenocytes).