What is a anterior mediastinal mass?

The anterior mediastinum contains thymus, fat, and lymph nodes, which corresponds with the most common etiologies of associated primary tumors. Although two-thirds of mediastinal masses are benign, about 59% of masses in the anterior compartment are malignant.[1] Most anterior mediastinal masses are epithelial tumors.

How can you tell the difference between lung and mediastinal mass?

Unlike lung lesions, a mediastinal mass will not contain air bronchograms. The margins with the lung will be obtuse. Mediastinal lines (azygoesophageal recess, anterior and posterior junction lines) will be disrupted. There can be associated spinal, costal or sternal abnormalities.

What causes an anterior mediastinal mass?

A: Depending on etiology, a mediastinal tumor can be caused by an enlarged lymph node, or a gland such as the thymus, thyroid, or parathyroid. It can also be caused by a cyst originating from the pericardium (the sac that houses the heart), the bronchus, or the esophagus.

Can anterior mediastinal mass be benign?

Anterior mediastinal tumors include: Germ cell tumors (neoplasms) – benign in about two-thirds of cases. Lymphoma including Hodgkin’s and non -Hodgkin’s disease.

Can you feel a mediastinal tumor?

Almost 40% of people who have mediastinal tumors experience no symptoms. Most of the growths are often discovered on a chest X-ray that is performed for another reason.

Where is an anterior mediastinal mass?

Mediastinal tumors are growths that form in the area of the chest that separates the lungs. This area, called the mediastinum, is surrounded by the breastbone in front, the spine in back, and the lungs on each side. The mediastinum contains the heart, aorta, esophagus, thymus, trachea, lymph nodes and nerves.

How is mediastinal mass diagnosed?

To confirm the diagnosis of a mediastinal tumor, your doctor may order tests for you, such as a: Chest x-ray. Computed tomography (CT) scan or a CT-guided biopsy of the chest. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest.

What is the most common anterior mediastinal tumors?

Thymoma, the most common primary anterior (frontal) mediastinal tumor seen in adults.

What is anterior mediastinal mass?

Anterior Mediastinal Masses. In adults, these tumors occur most commonly in the gonads, with only 3% arising in a mediastinal location. Teratoma is the most common germ cell tumor (70%), contains tissues from all three layers, and occurs in young adults. It most often contains fat, which derives from the mesoderm.

What are the causes of an anterosuperior mediastinal mass?

The common causes of an anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be remembered by using the mnemonic: Testicular cancer metastasis can represent a sixth T, and there are other rare causes that should be considered. 1. Quint LE. Imaging of anterior mediastinal masses.

Which radiographic findings are characteristic of acute mediastinitis?

Anterior Mediastinal Masses. On radiography, acute mediastinitis can produce mediastinal widening, diffuse or focal gas bubbles, pleural effusion, mediastinal air-fluid levels, or even a soft-tissue mass. CT findings suggesting mediastinitis include fat stranding, lymphadenopathy, abscess, and empyema.

How are mediastinal masses (MMS) classified?

A practical way of distinguishing among mediastinal masses is categorizing them according to their predominant CT attenuation values, which are primarily composed of fat, water, soft tissue, calcium, or vascular structures (Table 1).