What does gradient across a valve mean?

According Cardiovascular Physiology, stenosis of the aortic valve leads to a pressure gradient across the valve during the time in which blood flows through the valve opening. This aortic valve gradient is expressed as an increase and decrease on each side of the defective valve.

What does gradient mean in cardiology?

In order for blood to flow through a vessel or across a heart valve, there must be a force propelling the blood. This force is the difference in blood pressure (i.e., pressure gradient) across the vessel length or across the valve (P1-P2 in the figure to the right).

How long does an on-X aortic valve last?

If you are under the age of 70 years old and need aortic valve replacement, ask your doctor about the On-X Aortic Valve, the only mechanical valve that is both designed to last a lifetime and safer with less blood thinner.

What is the on-X mitral valve made of?

On-X is the only valve made of pure carbon, which produces a smoother polished surface than any other valve material. The smoother the surface, the less likely blood is to clot on it.

What is normal mitral valve gradient?

Mitral Valve. Aortic Valve Mean Gradient. Normal Area 4.0-6.0 cm2. Mild Stenosis 1.5-2.5 cm2. Moderate Stenosis 1.5-1.5 cm2.

Does blood pressure drop with aortic stenosis?

In cases of mild or moderate aortic stenosis, systolic blood pressure may be high; it falls as the condition becomes more severe.

What is normal aortic valve pressure gradient?

In adults with normal aortic valves, the valve area is approximately 3.0 to 4.0 cm2. As aortic stenosis (AS) develops, minimal pressure gradient is present until the orifice area becomes less than half of normal.

Which heart valve lasts longest?

Manufactured Mechanical Valve They are the most long-lasting type of replacement valve. Most will last throughout a patient’s life. Patients who receive a manufactured valve will almost always require a blood-thinning medication for the rest of their lives.

How does a ball and cage valve work?

The first artificial heart valve was the caged ball valve, a type of ball check valve, in which a ball is housed inside a cage. When the heart contracts and the blood pressure in the chamber of the heart exceeds the pressure on the outside of the chamber, the ball is pushed against the cage and allows blood to flow.

What is mean gradient in aortic stenosis?

Aortic stenosis (AS) is defined as severe in the presence of: mean gradient ≥40 mmHg, peak aortic velocity ≥4 m/s, and aortic valve area (AVA) ≤1 cm2 (or an indexed AVA ≤0.6 cm2/m2).