What causes idiopathic hypercalciuria?

High sodium intake has been proposed as the cause of idiopathic hypercalciuria. High sodium intake leads to increased urinary sodium excretion, and the increased tubular sodium load can decrease tubular calcium reabsorption, possibly favoring a reduction in bone mineral density over time.

What is idiopathic hypercalciuria?

Idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), defined as an excess urine calcium excretion without an apparent underlying etiology, is the most frequent cause of hypercalciuria and will be the focus of this paper.

How common is idiopathic hypercalciuria?

Idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) is characterized by normocalcemia in the absence of known systemic causes of hypercalciuria (Table 81.2). Hypercalciuria is present in 5%–10% of pediatric and adult populations and is the single most common cause of calcium oxalate kidney stones.

How is idiopathic hypercalciuria treated?

Proper treatment requires a high calcium intake, a low sodium intake, moderation of very high protein intakes, avoidance of refined sugar loads, and – not rarely – use of diuretic drugs which can lower urine calcium losses, prevent stones, and protect bones.

Is hypercalciuria the same as hypercalcemia?

For the purpose of this analysis hypercalcemia was defined in usual clinical terms, that is a serum calcium ≥ 10.3mg/dl (2.75mmol/l). Similarly hypercalciuria was defined as a 24 hour urine calcium value > 300mg (7.5mmol/L) and severe hypercalciuria as > 400mg (10mmol/L).

What diseases cause hypercalciuria?

What causes hypercalciuria?

  • Hyperthyroidism.
  • Renal tubular acidosis.
  • Sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases.
  • Vitamin D intoxication.
  • Glucocorticoid excess.
  • Paget disease.
  • Albright tubular acidosis.
  • Various paraneoplastic syndromes.

How do you stop calcium loss in urine?

To lower the calcium level in your urine, your healthcare provider might suggest that you eat more vegetables and fruits and less animal products, like red meat and eggs. If you’re an older adult, your provider may recommend that you add more potassium and reduce the amount of salty foods in your diet.

Is hypercalciuria a kidney disease?

Hypercalciuria, or excessive urinary calcium excretion, is the most common identifiable cause of calcium kidney stone disease. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is diagnosed when clinical, laboratory, and radiographic investigations fail to delineate an underlying cause of the condition.

How does hypercalciuria cause hematuria?

Hypercalciuria also can cause hematuria even without any detectable stone formation, particularly in children. The cause is thought to be from focal and microscopic tissue damage from tiny calcium crystals and focal stones that are too small to be diagnosed with standard techniques.

Do you pee out excess calcium?

Your body uses calcium in many ways, from developing teeth to building bones. Your parathyroid gland regulates the calcium in your body. It releases extra calcium from the bones when your body needs it. If your body has too much calcium, it is carried out of your body with your urine.

How to treat hypercalciuria?

The most common cause of hypercalcemia in the outpatient setting is primary HPT.

  • Surgery remains the only effective therapy for primary HPT,and all patients with this condition should be referred to a surgeon.
  • Management of hypercalcemia from other causes must be tailored to the underlying diagnosis.
  • What are the symptoms of high calcium levels?


  • Kidneys
  • Abdomen
  • Heart. High calcium can affect the electrical system of the heart,causing abnormal heart rhythms.
  • Muscles. Calcium levels can affect your muscles,causing twitches,cramps,and weakness.
  • Skeletal system
  • Neurological symptoms. Hypercalcemia can also cause neurological symptoms,such as depression,memory loss,and irritability.
  • What causes idiopathic cardiomyopathy?

    – Drugs – like amphetamines, cocaine, ethanol, chemotherapeutic agents (anthracyclines, trastuzumab, cyclophosphamide), antipsychotic medications (clozapine, lithium), and interleukin-2. – Heavy metal – toxicity with copper, iron, lead – Metabolic – causes like pheochromocytoma, thyrotoxicosis, hemochromatosis, or beriberi.

    Which finding may be associated with hypercalcemia?

    Mild hypercalcemia. In mild hypercalcemia (serum calcium < 11.5 mg/dL[< 2.9 mmol/L]),in which symptoms are mild or absent,treatment is deferred pending definitive diagnosis.

  • Moderate hypercalcemia.
  • Severe hypercalcemia.
  • Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia.