What are the two types of leishmaniasis?

There are several different forms of leishmaniasis in people. The most common forms are cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores, and visceral leishmaniasis, which affects several internal organs (usually spleen, liver, and bone marrow).

Which disease is caused by phlebotomus?

Visceral leishmaniasis is a deadly parasitic disease that is transmitted via the bite of a female sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes. The highest burden of this disease is in northern India.

How is cutaneous Leishmania treated?

In addition to parenteral and oral medications (see Medication), local therapies for some forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis include (1) cryotherapy, (2) infiltration of sodium stibogluconate at 0.3-0.8 mL, (3) local heat therapy at 40-42°C, and (4) various topical paromomycin preparations, typically 15% with 10% urea.

Why do sandfly bites itch?

When histamines are released, fluid is released in the bite area which causes swelling. The fluid helps dilute and flush away foreign substances. The presence of histamines can also make some nerve cells fire repeatedly, which the brain perceives as itching.

Is Phlebotomus a mosquito?

Phlebotomus is a genus of “sand flies” in the Diptera family Psychodidae. In the past, they have sometimes been considered to belong in a separate family, Phlebotomidae, but this alternative classification has not gained wide acceptance.

What is the medical role of Phlebotomus?

Mediterranean and in southern Asia, Phlebotomus transmits the pappataci fever virus; and in parts of South America, Africa, and Asia it carries the protozoan parasites causing kala azar, Oriental sore, espundia, and bartonellosis.

Is leish contagious?

Leishmaniasis is not contagious person to person. Sand fly bites are necessary to transfer the parasite from the sand fly to the human. The sand fly is the vector for the disease. The protozoan parasite has a life cycle that requires development in both the sand fly and a mammal (human, dogs and others).

What is leishmaniasis?

Leishmaniasis is caused by a protozoa parasite from over 20 Leishmania species. Over 90 sandfly species are known to transmit Leishmania parasites. There are 3 main forms of the disease:

Is leishmaniasis a vector-borne disease?

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is transmitted by sandflies and caused by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human infection is caused by about 21 of 30 species that infect mammals.

What factors affect the pathophysiology of leishmaniasis?

Parasite, host, and other factors affect whether the infection becomes symptomatic and whether cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis results. Sandflies become infected by ingesting infected cells during blood meals (,).

How are Leishmania parasites transmitted?

Leishmania parasites are transmitted through the bites of infected female phlebotomine sandflies, which feed on blood to produce eggs.