Table of Contents

What are the four curriculum approaches?

It follows, therefore, that all curriculum approaches (e.g. behavioural, managerial, systems, academic, humanistic and reconceptualists) must be given their due in Page 2 24 overall curriculum development, and curriculum theory must guide all curriculum activities (Zais, 1976; Marsh, 2004).

Why is it important to have culturally diverse literature in your classroom?

Multicultural literature serves as a powerful tool in enabling students to gain a better understanding of both their own culture and the cultures of others. Students therefore develop greater cognitive skills as they learn to engage with and critically evaluate the texts that they read.

What is the impact of differences in communication?

Cultural differences between team members increases the complexity or “thinking” required around communications. Additionally, when we add virtual team members to the mix, we increase the complexity even further!

What is the contribution approach to multicultural education?

The Contributions Approach It is characterized by the addition of ethnic heroes into the existing curriculum by using criteria similar to those used to select mainstream heroes. The curriculum remains essentially unchanged in terms of its basic structure, goals, and main ideas.

How does Banks define multicultural education?

Banks and Banks (2001) define multicultural education as: An idea, an educational reform movement, and a process whose major goal is to change the structure of educational institutions so that male and female students, exceptional students, and students who are members of diverse racial, ethnic, language, and cultural …

What is the impact of culture on communication?

The culture in which individuals are socialized influences the way they communicate, and the way individuals communicate can change the culture. Culture provides its members with an implicit knowledge about how to behave in different situations and how to interpret others’ behavior in such situations.

What is the main idea of multiculturalism?

Multiculturalism seeks the inclusion of the views and contributions of diverse members of society while maintaining respect for their differences and withholding the demand for their assimilation into the dominant culture.

How does cultural differences affect communication?

Cultural differences causes behavior and personality differences like body language, thinking, communication, manners, norms, etc. which leads to miscommunication. For example, in some cultures eye contact is important whereas in some it is rude and disrespectful. Beliefs are also another cause for cultural barrier.

What can learning about different cultures teach us?

By learning and understanding different cultures you understand why people do things the way they do. When you identify with other people, you sympathize with their situation. This facilitates understanding and prevents misunderstandings.

What multiculturalism means?

français | Deutsch | Español. “Multiculturalism” is the co-existence of diverse cultures, where culture includes racial, religious, or cultural groups and is manifested in customary behaviours, cultural assumptions and values, patterns of thinking, and communicative styles.

What are the four approaches to multicultural education?

James Banks, one of the most famous researchers in the field of multicultural education, identified four approaches: (1) the contributions approach; (2) the additive approach; (3) the transformation approach; and (4) the social action approach (Banks and McGee Banks, 2004). The contributions approach.

Why is multicultural education important in early childhood?

Children from any language background benefit by participation in a critical multicultural education early childhood program. Children’s home languages and cultures are integral to children’s identities and to their cognitive, linguistic and socio-emotional development.

What is the importance of culture in the success of the communication process?

A key characteristic of culture is good communication and how information is shared and exchanged within the organization. Effective communication is what keeps internal processes running smoothly and helps to create positive relations with people both inside and outside the organization.

What are the characteristics of multicultural classroom?

The Dimensions of Multicultural Education I have identified five dimensions of multicultural education. They are: content integration, the knowledge construction process, prejudice reduction, an equity pedagogy, and an empowering school culture and social structure (Banks, 1995a).

How does cultural differences affect communication in the workplace?

Behavioral differences between employees of different cultures can cause misunderstandings. Likewise, in some cultures, people talking to each other give each other space, while in other cultures, they stand close. These differences can be barriers to effective communication if they are not recognized.

How culture affect the nature of teaching and learning?

Cultural tendencies impact the way children participate in education. To engage students effectively in the learning process, teachers must know their students and their academic abilities individually, rather than relying on racial or ethnic stereotypes or prior experience with other students of similar backgrounds.

How do cultural and racial differences affect communication?

Cultural diversity can have a powerful effect on communication within the organisation. Problems occur between people of different cultures primarily because people tend to assume that their own cultural norms are the right ways to do things. People interpret information differently even when the same language is used.

What are the PYP approaches to learning?

Formerly known by the International Baccalaureate Organisation as the Transdisciplinary Skills, these are, simply put, a set of skills that we use when we are involved in learning. They come grouped into five sets: Thinking, Social, Self Management, Research and Communication.

What are the main assumptions of the behaviourist approach?

One assumption of the behaviourist approach is that we are born as a blank slate (known as tabula rasa) and we learn everything from the environment. This assumptions believes that all humans, male and female, are born the same and it is the environment and social norms that shape our personality.

What are the 5 approaches to learning?

Approaches to Learning (5 elements)

  • Thinking skills. critical thinking. creativity and innovation. transfer.
  • Communication skills.
  • Social skills.
  • Self-management skills. organisation. affective. reflection.
  • Research skills. information literacy. media literacy.

Why do we assess learning?

Assessment for learning helps teachers gather information to: pinpoint students’ strengths so that both teachers and students can build on them. identify students’ learning needs in a clear and constructive way so they can be addressed. involve parents, families, and whānau in their children’s learning.

What are the strengths of the behaviourist approach?


  • It has successfully applied classical and operant conditioning to its theories. Systematic desensitisation is based on classical conditioning and is useful for treating phobias.
  • Uses scientific methods of research because the experiments are objective, measurable and observable.

What are the three approaches to curriculum?

There are three models of curriculum design: subject-centered, learner-centered, and problem-centered design.

How is behaviorism applied in teaching and learning?

Behaviorism can also be thought of as a form of classroom management. Behaviorists believe that if teachers provide positive reinforcement, or rewards, whenever students perform a desired behavior, they will learn to perform the behavior on their own. The same concept applies to punishments.

How is Skinner’s theory used in the classroom?

Skinner’s theories have been implemented in school systems in a variety of ways. Teachers seeking to implement a reinforcement system in their classroom should use strategies such as a “token economy” to reward students immediately for behaviors that they are reinforcing.

What are the two main approaches in curriculum development?

Commonly used approaches consist of analysis (i.e. need analysis, task analysis), design (i.e. objective design), selecting (i.e. choosing appropriate learning/teaching methods and appropriate assessment methods) formation ( i.e. formation of the curriculum implementation committee / curriculum evaluation committee) …

What is behaviourist approach to learning?

Behaviorism focuses on the idea that all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment. This learning theory states that behaviors are learned from the environment, and says that innate or inherited factors have very little influence on behavior.

Why should a teacher consider assessment as for of learning?

Assessment of learning is the snapshot in time that lets the teacher, students and their parents know how well each student has completed the learning tasks and activities. It provides information about student achievement. While it provides useful reporting information, it often has little effect on learning.

What are the 7 types of curricula?

Seven Types of Curriculum

  • Recommended Curriculum.
  • Written Curriculum.
  • Taught Curriculum.
  • Supported Curriculum.
  • Assessed Curriculum.
  • Learned Curriculum.
  • Hidden Curriculum.

What are the 9 types of curriculum?

The following represents the many different types of curriculum used in schools today.

  • Overt, explicit, or written curriculum.
  • Societal curriculum (or social curricula)
  • The hidden or covert curriculum.
  • The null curriculum.
  • Phantom curriculum.
  • Concomitant curriculum.
  • Rhetorical curriculum.
  • Curriculum-in-use.

How are learners assessed in the classroom?

The assessments best suited to guide improvements in student learning are the quizzes, tests, writing assignments, and other assessments that teachers administer on a regular basis in their classrooms. Teachers trust the results from these assessments because of their direct relation to classroom instructional goals.

What are the different curriculum approaches?

Curriculum Approaches

  • Curriculum Approaches Group 5 EDMS 102: Curriculum Development.
  • What is an APPROACH?
  • Curriculum Approaches There are four curriculum approaches: ◦ BEHAVIORAL APPROACH ◦ MANAGERIAL APPROACH ◦ SYSTEMS APPROACH ◦ HUMANISTIC APPROACH.
  • Behavioral Approach Anchored on the behaviorist principle.

What are the examples of ideal curriculum?

The IDEAL Educational System

  • Building self-confidence;
  • Creating a fun-filled learning environment;
  • Learning the Relaxation Response;
  • Visualizing Success; and.
  • Using Music and Rhythm.
  • Using Stories, poems, art, drama and dance (the creative arts);

What are the approaches?

An approach is a way of looking at teaching and learning. An approach gives rise to methods, the way of teaching something, which use classroom activities or techniques to help learners learn.

What is curriculum as a content or body of knowledge?

Curriculum is a body of knowledge-content and/or subjects. Education in this sense, is the process by which these are transmitted or ‘delivered’ to students by the most effective methods that can be devised (Blenkin et al 1992: 23).

What are the educational implications of Behaviourism?

General Educational Implications of Behaviorism Emphasis on behavior: students should be active respondents; people are most likely to learn when they actually have a chance to behave. Also, student learning must be evaluated; only measurable behavior changes can confirm that learning has taken place.

How does assessment for learning help the individual student?

Student assessment enables instructors to measure the effectiveness of their teaching by linking student performance to specific learning objectives. As a result, teachers are able to institutionalize effective teaching choices and revise ineffective ones in their pedagogy.

How do you observe teaching and learning?

Top Ten Tips For Observing Teachers

  1. Communicate With The Teacher.
  2. Provide All Necessary Documentation.
  3. Talk Through The Lesson.
  4. Areas To Consider During Teacher Observations.
  5. Review The Same Day.
  6. Provide A Criticism Sandwich.
  7. Further Reading.
  8. Arrange Peer Observations.

What are the different approaches to teaching?

Teacher-Centered Methods of Instruction

  • Direct Instruction (Low Tech)
  • Flipped Classrooms (High Tech)
  • Kinesthetic Learning (Low Tech)
  • Differentiated Instruction (Low Tech)
  • Inquiry-based Learning (High Tech)
  • Expeditionary Learning (High Tech)
  • Personalized Learning (High Tech)
  • Game-based Learning (High Tech)

How does assessment for learning help the individual student quizlet?

Effective assessments give students feedback on how well they understand the information and on what they need to improve, while helping teachers better design instruction. Assessment becomes even more relevant when students become involved in their own assessment.

What are the two basic approaches of teaching?

There are two main types of teaching method which are non-participatory method and participatory method.

What do you observe in a classroom?

Preparing for Observing Others’ Classrooms

  • Choose a good example classroom to observe.
  • Think of questions and areas you want more information about.
  • Set the date and time for the observation.
  • Remember your list of questions and paper.
  • Make sure to arrive on time.
  • Be unobtrusive / Blend in.
  • Guidelines About Picture Taking.