How are glycoproteins synthesized and transported?
The G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is transported from its site of synthesis in the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane via the Golgi apparatus.
What part of the cell synthesizes glycoproteins?
Protein processing within the Golgi involves the modification and synthesis of the carbohydrate portions of glycoproteins.
Where are glycosylated proteins synthesized?
the rough endoplasmic reticulum
The majority of proteins synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum undergo glycosylation. Glycosylation is also present in the cytoplasm and nucleus as the O-GlcNAc modification.
What is the structure of a glycoprotein?
Glycoproteins are proteins containing glycans attached to amino acid side chains. Glycans are oligosaccharide chains; which are saccharide polymers, that can attach to either lipids (glycolipids) or amino acids (glycoproteins). Typically, these bonds are formed through a process called glycosylation.
Where are carbohydrates synthesized in the cell?
The synthesis of membrane carbohydrates starts in the endoplasmic reticulum, but it is in the Golgi complex where they are modified and grow by adding many new monomers to form complex carbohydrate molecules.
Where are transmembrane glycoproteins synthesized?
the endoplasmic membranes
The glycoproteins synthesized in the endoplasmic membranes also appear to enter to the cytoplasm for further transport to various intracellular membranes.
How are glycoproteins modified?
The carbohydrate on the glycoprotein is then modified by enzymes that remove some sugars and attach others as the newly formed glycoprotein moves from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus and other locations in the cell.
What does the ribosome do?
A ribosome is an intercellular structure made of both RNA and protein, and it is the site of protein synthesis in the cell. The ribosome reads the messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence and translates that genetic code into a specified string of amino acids, which grow into long chains that fold to form proteins.