What is the history of meningococcal?

The first outbreak in Africa was recorded in the 1840s, but it wasn’t until 1887 that Austrian bacteriologist Anton Vaykselbaum identified meningococcal bacteria as a cause of meningitis. In 1890, Heinrich Quincke (1842–1922) used a procedure called lumbar puncture (LP) on a patient with suspected meningitis.

Where did meningococcal disease come from?

Meningococcal disease is caused by bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis. It can lead to serious blood infections. When the linings of the brain and spinal cord become infected, it is called meningitis. The disease strikes quickly and can have serious complications, including death.

Is meningococcal disease common?

Meningococcal disease occurs worldwide, with the highest incidence of disease found in the ‘meningitis belt’ of sub-Saharan Africa. In this region, major epidemics occur every 5 to 12 years with attack rates reaching 1,000 cases per 100,000 population.

Where was meningococcal disease first discovered?

The first major one was reported in Nigeria and Ghana in 1905–1908. In early reports large number of people died of the disease. The first evidence that linked bacterial infection as a cause of meningitis was written by Austrian bacteriology Anton Vaykselbaum who described meningococcal bacteria in 1887.

When was meningococcal disease discovered?

meningitidis) was first discovered in 1887 by Weichselbaum from analyzing the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient infected with meningitis. [1] It is a human-specific bacterium that causes a multitude of illnesses, collectively termed meningococcal disease.

What history and physical findings are common in the patient with meningitis?

History. Meningococcal meningitis is characterized by acute onset of intense headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and stiff neck. Elderly patients are prone to have an altered mental state and a prolonged course with fever. Lethargy or drowsiness in patients frequently is reported.

How is meningitis caused?

Meningitis is an inflammation (swelling) of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. A bacterial or viral infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord usually causes the swelling. However, injuries, cancer, certain drugs, and other types of infections also can cause meningitis.

Where is meningococcal disease most common?

People all over the world are at risk of meningitis. The highest burden of disease is seen in a region of sub-Saharan Africa, known as the African Meningitis Belt, especially recognised to be at high risk of epidemics of meningococcal but also pneumococcal meningitis.

Where is viral meningitis most common in the world?

Meningococcal meningitis is observed worldwide but the highest burden of the disease is in the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa, stretching from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east. Around 30 000 cases are still reported each year from that area.

What is the origin of meningitis?

Meningitis symptoms have been described in ancient texts throughout history, even Hippocrates described brain inflammation in his work. The first outbreak of meningococcal meningitis was recorded in Geneva in 1805, the first recorded outbreak in Africa was in 1840.

Why is meningitis more common in Africa?

The reason for the susceptibility of this region of Africa to major epidemics of meningococcal disease is at least in part related to its climatic features, with outbreaks occurring mainly in the hot, dry season (Sultan et al., 2005).

When was the first meningococcal vaccine introduced?

The first vaccine — meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine or MPSV4 — was approved in 1978. It’s made with the antigens contained in the outer polysaccharide or sugar capsule that surrounds the bacterium. The meningococcal conjugate vaccine or MCV4 was approved in 2005.