What are the major Toxidromes?
The most commonly encountered toxidromes are the: (a) anticholinergic, (b) cholinergic, (c) opioid, (d) sedative-hypnotic, and (e) sympathomimetic (also known as the adrenergic or stimulant) toxidromes.
What are the Toxidromes?
A toxidrome (a portmanteau of toxic and syndrome) is a syndrome caused by a dangerous level of toxins in the body. The term was coined in 1970 by Mofenson and Greensher. It is often the consequence of a drug overdose. Common symptoms include dizziness, disorientation, nausea, vomiting, and oscillopsia.
How do you avoid toxidrome?
Preventing an overdose
- If you use alone. Download the Lifeguard app – it’s quick, easy and can save your or someone else’s life.
- Try to avoid using alone.
- Know your tolerance.
- Don’t mix drugs.
- Know the quality of the drugs.
- Know your health and body.
- Learn more about naloxone.
Why are Toxidromes important?
Toxic syndrome or toxidrome recognition is important because it provides a tool for rapid detection of the suspected cause and can focus the differential diagnosis to consideration of only a few chemicals with similar toxic effects.
How many toxidromes are there?
While it is beyond the scope of this article to present every toxidrome, there are six that EMS providers can readily identify and treat. The six toxidromes this article will focus on are: Opioid.
What is the name of the poison found in castor beans?
Ricin is a poison found naturally in castor beans. If castor beans are chewed and swallowed, the released ricin can cause injury. Ricin can be made from the waste material left over from processing castor beans.
What are the toxidromes of theophylline toxicity?
The most common metabolic responses to theophylline toxicity in the literature are hypokalaemia, hyperglycaemia, lactic acidosis, hypomagnesaemia and hypophosphataemia (4,5,6). Thus, the presence of such abnormalities should raise suspicion of overt theophylline toxidromes.
What drugs cause cholinergic toxidrome?
Pharmaceuticals capable of causing cholinergic symptoms in overdose include physostigmine, neostigmine, donepezil (Aricept®), pilocarpine, bethanechol, rivastigmine (Exelon®), galantamine (Razadyne®), methacholine and cevimeline (Evoxac®).