What are the alar ligaments?

The alar ligaments are fibrous cords that attach to the dens bilaterally and insert on the base of the skull. They function to limit axial rotation and lateral bending on the contralateral side, and flexion secondarily [1-2].

What is the role of the alar ligament?

Function. The function of the alar ligaments is to limit the amount of rotation of the head, and by their action on the dens of the axis, they attach the skull to the axis, the second cervical vertebra.

Where is the alar ligaments located?

The alar ligaments join the lateral margins of the sloping upper posterior margin of the dens of C2 to the lateral margins of the foramen magnum (adjacent to the occipital condyles) and lie on either side of the apical ligament. They may be oblique or vertical and are thickest at the occipital attachment.

Is alar ligament paired?

The paired alar ligaments attach the posterolateral aspects of the dens to the medial aspect of the occipital condyles and the occipital bone, as well as the axis bilaterally (7,8). The cross-shaped cruciate ligament is composed of the transverse ligament and the superior and inferior crura.

Can you walk with a torn ligament in your knee?

Full tears of the ACL and MCL are serious and can affect future movement. If the MCL or ACL tears, the result is usually pain, swelling, stiffness, and instability. In most cases, the injured person can still walk with the torn knee ligament. But the movement will be severely limited, not to mention painful.

What is alar ligament injury?

Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment.

What are the lateral collateral and cruciate ligaments?

The lateral collateral ligament (LCL) is on the outer side of your knee. It connects your femur to your calf bone (fibula). The collateral ligaments prevent the knee from moving side to side too much. Cruciate ligaments: The two cruciate ligaments are inside your knee joint and connect your femur to your tibia.

Where is the anterior cruciate ligament located in the knee?

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The ligament, located in the center of the knee, that controls rotation and forward movement of the tibia (shin bone). Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL).

What are the cruciates of the knee?

The cruciates are the most important knee ligaments in providing stability of the knee. There are two cruciate ligaments, anterior (ACL) and posterior (PCL).

What are the ligaments in the knee?

The knee ligaments connect the thigh and shin bones (femur & tibia) and work together to control how the knee moves to keep it stable and prevent injury. There are two pairs of ligaments in the knee, Collateral Ligaments: MCL & LCL found either side of the knee Cruciate Ligaments: ACL & PCL found in the middle of the joint