How do you interpret chromatography results?

Interpreting a chromatogram Separation by chromatography produces a chromatogram . A paper chromatogram can be used to distinguish between pure and impure substances: a pure substance produces one spot on the chromatogram. an impure substance produces two or more spots.

What does paper chromatography tell us?

Paper chromatography is used as a qualitative analytical chemistry technique for identifying and separating colored mixtures like pigments. It is used in scientific studies to identify unknown organic and inorganic compounds from a mixture.

What is the basic principle of paper chromatography?

The principle of paper chromatography is partition. In paper chromatography there are two phases one is the stationary phase and the other is the mobile phase. Here, water trapped in the paper acts as the stationary phase and solvent acts as the mobile phase.

What are the 3 main steps of paper chromatography?


  • Step 1: A horizontal line is drawn near one end (about 1.5 cm from the bottom edge) of the paper.
  • Step 2: The sample needs to be separated is placed as a small drop or line on to the paper using capillary tube.
  • Step 3: The paper is then placed into a sealed container with a swallow layer of suitable solvent.

What does chromatography measure?

Chromatography is a method used by scientists for separating organic and inorganic compounds so that they can be analyzed and studied. By analyzing a compound, a scientist can figure out what makes up that compound. Chromatography is a great physical method for observing mixtures and solvents.

What affects paper chromatography?

Factors affecting Rf value in paper chromatography

  • The solvent system.
  • Composition of the mobile phase.
  • The working temperature of the system.
  • The quality of the paper used.
  • The distance through which the solvent runs.
  • The quality and nature of solvents used.
  • The polarity of components.
  • The pH of the solvent or mobile phase.

What is paper chromatography used for in real life?

Paper chromatography has been primarily used for analysis of food colors in ice creams, sweets, drinks and beverages, jams and jellies. To ensure that no non-permitted coloring agents are added to the foods, only edible colors are permitted for use. That’s how quantification and identification becomes more important.

What is the importance of paper chromatography?

Paper chromatography is a technique which is used to separate low-molecular-mass compounds based on their distribution between stationary phase and mobile phase. Due to its low cost and availability of various protocols for the separation of compounds, paper chromatography is considered a powerful analytical tool.

Why do we use paper chromatography?

Paper chromatography is mainly used for determining the purity of various pharmaceutical products [40]. In food and beverages, it is used to detect contamination; and in industries, it can be used for separation purposes [41]. In the chemical labs, paper chromatography is employed to analyze reaction mixture [42].

What can we use paper chromatography for?

Paper chromatography is used to separate mixtures of soluble substances. These are often coloured substances such as food colourings, inks, dyes or plant pigments.

What factors affect chromatography?

Rf values and reproducibility can be affected by a number of different factors such as layer thickness, moisture on the TLC plate, vessel saturation, temperature, depth of mobile phase, nature of the TLC plate, sample size, and solvent parameters.

What are the advantages of paper chromatography?

The main advantages that paper chromatography offers are simplicity, low cost, and unattended, hassle-free operation. It can be run in various modes, and quantitation may be achieved without the use of expensive instrumentation.

What are the steps in paper chromatography?

Steps in Paper Chromatography. In paper chromatography, the sample mixture is applied to a piece of filter paper, the edge of the paper is immersed in a solvent, and the solvent moves up the paper by capillary action. The basic steps include: Selection of Solid Support;

Principle of Paper Chromatography. It is a basic process to distribute substances between liquid phases. This is a process of separation in which pores are used for absorption. In this technique, the mobile phase and liquid phase are separated by a sheet of paper with pores. The mobile phase moves and the separation of mixtures take place.

What is chromatography paper called?

Paper chromatography. Water and ethanol solution is heated.

  • As the paper is lowered into the solvent,some of the dye spreads up the paper.
  • The paper has absorbed the solvent,and the dye has spread further up the paper.
  • What is the purpose of paper chromatography?

    chromatography: Involves solvent separation on a solid medium.

  • distillation: Takes advantage of differences in boiling points.
  • evaporation: Removes a liquid from a solution to leave a solid material.
  • filtration: Separates solids of different sizes. References.